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Hydroxychloroquine is a antimalarial agent with have several pharmacological actions which may be involved in their therapeutic effect in the treatment of rheumatic disease, but its role is not known.
Chloroquine binds to and alters the properties of DNA. Chloroquine also binds to ferriprotoporphyrin IX and this leads to lysis of the plasmodial membrane. In acute attacks of malaria, it interrupts erythrocytic schizogony of the parasite.
Colchicine is considered to act against the inflammatory response to urate crystals, by possibly inhibiting the migration of granulocytes into the inflamed area. Other properties of colchicine, such as interaction with the microtubules, could also contribute to the operation. Onset of action is approximately 12 hours after oral administration and is maximal after 1 to 2 days.
Citalopram is the most Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) yet described, with no, or minimal, effect on noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake.
Ibuprofen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that has demonstrated its efficacy by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In humans ibuprofen reduces inflammatory pain, swellings and fever. Furthermore, ibuprofen reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation.
Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic belonging to the azalide group. The molecule is constructed by adding a nitrogen atom to the lactone ring of erythromycin A. The mechanism of action of azithromycin is based upon the suppression of bacterial protein synthesis by means of binding to the ribosomal 50S sub-unit and inhibition of peptide translocation.
Omeprazole, a racemic mixture of two enantiomers reduces gastric acid secretion through a highly targeted mechanism of action. It is a specific inhibitor of the acid pump in the parietal cell. It is rapidly acting and provides control through reversible inhibition of gastric acid secretion with once daily dosing.
Amlodipine is a calcium ion influx inhibitor of the dihydropyridine group (slow channel blocker or calcium ion antagonist) and inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into cardiac and vascular smooth muscle.
Cefuroxime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis following attachment to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). This results in the interruption of cell wall (peptidoglycan) biosynthesis, which leads to bacterial cell lysis and death.
Ceftriaxone is an antibacterial for systemic use, a third-generation cephalosporin. It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis following attachment to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) leading to bacterial cell lysis and death.