Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Bromfenac is a topical, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for ophthalmic use. It is indicated for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and reduction of ocular pain in patients who have undergone cataract surgery. The mechanism of its action is thought to be due to its ability to block prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. The most commonly reported adverse reactions in 3 to 8% of patients were anterior chamber inflammation, foreign body sensation, eye pain, photophobia and vision blurred.
Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The mechanism of action of diclofenac in AK may be related to the inhibition of the cycloxygenase pathway leading to reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) from skin biopsies ac revealed that the clinical effects of diclofenac in AK are primarily due to anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and possibly anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing mechanisms.
Flurbiprofen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID which acts through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In humans flurbiprofen has potent analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Indometacin has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects, it is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase.
Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent demonstrating analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Ketorolac inhibits the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme essential for biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Ketorolac has been shown to reduce prostaglandin levels in the aqueous humour after topical ophthalmic administration.
Nepafenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic prodrug. After topical ocular dosing, nepafenac penetrates the cornea and is converted by ocular tissue hydrolases to amfenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Amfenac inhibits the action of prostaglandin H synthase (cyclooxygenase), an enzyme required for prostaglandin production.
Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic activity.
Salicylic acid has bacteriostatic and fungicidal actions, but it is its keratolytic properties which are important for this medicinal product. When applied externally it produces slow and painless destruction of the epithelium.