Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Alclometasone dipropionate is a non-fluorinated, topically active synthetic corticosteroid. Pharmacological studies in man and animals have demonstrated that alclometasone dipropionate suppresses local inflammation at doses producing minimal systemic effects.
Topical corticosteroids such as betamethasone have anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties.
Bromfenac is a topical, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for ophthalmic use. It is indicated for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and reduction of ocular pain in patients who have undergone cataract surgery. The mechanism of its action is thought to be due to its ability to block prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. The most commonly reported adverse reactions in 3 to 8% of patients were anterior chamber inflammation, foreign body sensation, eye pain, photophobia and vision blurred.
Clobetasone is a topical corticosteroids. Clobetasone has little effect on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function. Clobetasone is less potent than other available corticosteroid preparations and has been shown not to suppress the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients treated for psoriasis or eczema.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid; it combines high anti-inflammatory effects with low mineralocorticoid activity. It has an approximately 7 times greater anti-inflammatory potency than prednisolone, another commonly prescribed corticosteroid. At high doses it reduces the immune response.
Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The mechanism of action of diclofenac in AK may be related to the inhibition of the cycloxygenase pathway leading to reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) from skin biopsies ac revealed that the clinical effects of diclofenac in AK are primarily due to anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and possibly anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing mechanisms.
Fluocinolone acetonide is a synthetic fluorinated corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties.
Fluorometholone is a synthetic corticosteroid (glucocorticoid), a derivative of desoxyprednisolone. It is a member of the group of universally known steroids used for the treatment of eye inflammation. Glucocorticosteroids bind to cytoplasmic receptors and control the synthesis of infection mediators thus damping inflammatory reactions (swelling, fibrin deposition, capillary dilatation, phagocyte migration) and also capillary proliferation, collagen deposition and scarring.
Flurbiprofen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID which acts through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In humans flurbiprofen has potent analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Hydrocortisone is the main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Hydrocortisone is an anti-inflammatory steroid. Its anti-inflammatory action is due to reduction in the vascular component of the inflammatory response and reduction in the formation of inflammatory fluid and cellular exudates.
Indometacin has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects, it is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase.
Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent demonstrating analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Ketorolac inhibits the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme essential for biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Ketorolac has been shown to reduce prostaglandin levels in the aqueous humour after topical ophthalmic administration.
Loteprednol etabonate is a new class of corticosteroid with potent antiinflammatory activity designed to be active at the site of action. Its antiinflammatory activity is similar to the most powerful steroid used in ophthalmology but with less intraocular pressure.
Nepafenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic prodrug. After topical ocular dosing, nepafenac penetrates the cornea and is converted by ocular tissue hydrolases to amfenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Amfenac inhibits the action of prostaglandin H synthase (cyclooxygenase), an enzyme required for prostaglandin production.
Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic activity.
Prednisolone is a glucocorticoid which has anti-inflammatory activity. Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.
Rimexolone is a corticosteroid drug. Placebo controlled clinical studies demonstrated that rimexolone is efficacious for the treatment of anterior chamber inflammation following cataract surgery.
Salicylic acid has bacteriostatic and fungicidal actions, but it is its keratolytic properties which are important for this medicinal product. When applied externally it produces slow and painless destruction of the epithelium.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a more potent derivative of triamcinolone and is approximately 8 times more potent than prednisone. Although the precise mechanism of corticosteroid anti-allergic action is unknown, corticosteroids are very effective in the treatment of allergic diseases in man. Also, local injections are thought to have an anti-inflammatory effect.