Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. Historically, it has been used to treat nasal congestion and depression. Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant.
Aniracetam is a member of pyrrolidin-2-ones and a N-acylpyrrolidine. It is a compound with anti-depressive properties used as a mental performance enhancer.
Atomoxetine is a highly selective and potent inhibitor of the pre-synaptic noradrenaline transporter, its presumed mechanism of action, without directly affecting the serotonin or dopamine transporters.
Caffeine is structurally related to the methylxanthines theophylline and theobromine. Caffeine’s main action is as a CNS stimulant.
Lisdexamfetamine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and hydrolysed primarily by red blood cells to dexamfetamine, which is responsible for the drug’s activity. Amfetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity.
Methylphenidate HCl is a mild central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. The mode of therapeutic action in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is not known. Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of noradrenaline and dopamine into the presynaptic neurone and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.
Modafinil promotes wakefulness in a variety of species, including man. The precise mechanism(s) through which modafinil promotes wakefulness is unknown.
Piracetam’s mode of action in cortical myoclonus is as yet unknown. Piracetam exerts its haemorrheological effects on the platelets, red blood cells, and vessel walls by increasing erythrocyte deformability and by decreasing platelet aggregation, erythrocyte adhesion to vessel walls and capillary vasospasm.