Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Aflibercept, also known as VEGF TRAP in the scientific literature, is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of VEGF-binding portions from the extracellular domains of human VEGF receptors 1 and 2 fused to the Fc portion of the human IgG1. Aflibercept blocks the activation of VEGF receptors and the proliferation of endothelial cells, thereby inhibiting the growth of new vessels that supply tumours with oxygen and nutrients.
Alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid), a naturally-occurring endogenous hormone related to vitamin A, binds to and activates all known intracellular retinoid receptor subtypes (RAR, RAR, RAR, RXR, RXR, RXR). The efficacy of alitretinoin in treating KS lesions may be related to the demonstrated ability of alitretinoin to inhibit the in vitro growth of KS cells.
Amsidine is a sterile antitumour chemotherapeutic agent for intravenous infusion. Although not completely clarified, the mode of action of amsacrine is related to its property of binding the DNA through intercalation and external (electrostatic) forces.
Anagrelide is an inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase III and suppress expression of transcription factors including GATA-1 and FOG-1 required for megakaryocytopoiesis, ultimately leading to reduced platelet production.
Arsenic trioxide causes morphological changes and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis in NB4 human promyelocytic leukaemia cells in vitro. Arsenic trioxide also causes damage or degradation of the fusion protein PML/RAR alpha.
Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor. It is specifically designed to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 26S proteasome in mammalian cells. Inhibition of the 26S proteasome prevents this targeted proteolysis and affects multiple signalling cascades within the cell, ultimately resulting in cancer cell death.
Celecoxib is an oral, selective, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor within the clinical dose range (200-400 mg daily). No statistically significant inhibition of COX-1 (assessed as ex vivo inhibition of thromboxane B2 [TxB2] formation) was observed in this dose range in healthy volunteers.
Eribulin is a microtubule dynamics inhibitor belonging to the halichondrin class of antineoplastic agents. It is a structurally simplified synthetic analogue of halichondrin B, a natural product isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai.
Estramustine is a chemical compound of oestradiol and nitrogen mustard. It is effective in the treatment of advanced prostatic carcinoma. Estramustine has a dual mode of action. The intact molecule acts as an anti-miotic agent; after hydrolysis of the carbamate ester, the metabolites act to bridge the released oestrogens and exert an anti-gonadotrophic effect.
The specific mechanism of action of hydroxycarbamide is not fully understood. One of the mechanisms by which hydroxycarbamide acts is the elevation of foetal haemoglobin (HbF) concentrations in sickle cell patients. In addition hydroxycarbamide causes an immediate inhibition of DNA synthesis by acting as a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, without interfering with the synthesis of ribonucleic acid or protein.
Irinotecan is a semi-synthetic derivative of camptothecin. It is an antineoplastic agent which acts as a specific inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I.
Miltefosine has a marked direct antileishmanial activity in vitro and in animal models. Leishmania donovani was the most sensitive species in promastigote and amastigote test systems.
Niraparib is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes, PARP-1 and PARP-2, which play a role in DNA repair.
Olaparib is a potent inhibitor of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase enzymes (PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARP-3), and has been shown to inhibit the growth of selected tumour cell lines in vitro and tumour growth in vivo either as a standalone treatment or in combination with established chemotherapies.
Pegaspargase is a covalent conjugate of Escherichia coli-derived L-asparaginase with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol. The mechanism of action of L-asparaginase is the enzymatic cleavage of the amino acid L-asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia. Depletion of L-asparagine in blood results in inhibition of protein-synthesis, DNA-synthesis and RNA-synthesis, especially in leukaemic blasts which are not able to synthesise L-asparagine, thus undergoing apoptosis.
Pentostatin is a potent transition state inhibitor of the enzyme adenosine deaminase. The greatest activity of ADA is found in cells of the lymphoid system with T-cells having higher activity than B-cells and T-cell malignancies higher ADA activity than B-cell malignancies. Pentostatin has been shown to have activity against a variety of lymphoid malignancies, but is most active against indolent cancers with lower ADA concentration, such as hairy cell leukaemia.
Rucaparib is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes, including PARP-1, PARP-2, and PARP-3, which play a role in DNA repair. In vitro studies have shown that rucaparibinduced cytotoxicity involves inhibition of PARP enzymatic activity and the trapping of PARP-DNA complexes resulting in increased DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell death.
Sonidegib is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the Hh signalling pathway. It binds to Smoothened (Smo), a G protein-coupled receptor-like molecule that positively regulates the Hh pathway. Aberrant Hh signalling has been linked to the pathogenesis of several types of cancer, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Sonidegib binding to Smo will inhibit Hh signalling and consequently block signal transduction.
Talazoparib is an inhibitor of PARP enzymes, PARP1, and PARP2. PARP enzymes are involved in cellular DNA damage response signalling pathways such as DNA repair, gene transcription, and cell death. PARP inhibitors (PARPi) exert cytotoxic effects on cancer cells by 2 mechanisms, inhibition of PARP catalytic activity and by PARP trapping, whereby PARP protein bound to a PARPi does not readily dissociate from a DNA lesion, thus preventing DNA repair, replication, and transcription, thereby resulting in apoptosis and/or cell death.
Talimogene laherparepvec is an oncolytic immunotherapy that is derived from HSV-1. Talimogene laherparepvec has been modified to replicate within tumours and to produce the immune stimulatory protein human GM-CSF. Talimogene laherparepvec causes the death of tumour cells and the release of tumour-derived antigens.
Topotecan involves the inhibition of topoisomerase-I, an enzyme intimately involved in DNA replication.
Tretinoin decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells resulting in decreased microcomedone formation. Additionally, tretinoin stimulates mitotic activity and increased turnover of follicular epithelial cells, causing extrusion of the comedones.
Venetoclax is a potent, selective inhibitor of B-cell lymphoma (BCL)-2, an anti-apoptotic protein. Overexpression of BCL-2 has been demonstrated in CLL cells where it mediates tumour cell survival and has been associated with resistance to chemotherapeutics. Venetoclax binds directly to the BH3-binding groove of BCL-2, displacing BH3 motif-containing pro-apoptotic proteins like BIM, to initiate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), caspase activation, and programmed cell death.
Vismodegib is an orally available small-molecule inhibitor of the Hedgehog pathway. Hedgehog pathway signalling through the Smoothened transmembrane protein (SMO) leads to the activation and nuclear localisation of Glioma-Associated Oncogene (GLI) transcription factors and induction of Hedgehog target genes. Vismodegib binds to and inhibits the SMO protein thereby blocking Hedgehog signal transduction.
Vorinostat inhibits the enzymatic activity of histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 (Class I) and HDAC6 (Class II) at nanomolar concentrations. Inhibition of HDAC activity allows for the accumulation of acetyl groups on the histone lysine residues resulting in an open chromatin structure and transcriptional activation. In vitro, vorinostat causes the accumulation of acetylated histones and induces cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis of some transformed cells.