ATC Group: L01XC Monoclonal antibodies

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System


Monoclonal antibodies

Hierarchical Position



Active Ingredients

Chemical substance

Atezolizumab is an Fc-engineered, humanised immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody that directly binds to PD-L1 and provides a dual blockade of the PD-1 and B7.1 receptors, releasing PD-L1/PD-1 mediated inhibition of the immune response, including reactivating the antitumour immune response without inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Avelumab is a human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Avelumab binds PD-L1 and blocks the interaction between PD-L1 and the programmed death 1 (PD-1) and B7.1 receptors. This removes the suppressive effects of PD-L1 on cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells, resulting in the restoration of anti-tumour T-cell responses.

Bevacizumab binds to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the key driver of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, and thereby inhibits the binding of VEGF to its receptors, Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and KDR (VEGFR-2), on the surface of endothelial cells. Neutralising the biological activity of VEGF regresses the vascularisation of tumours, normalises remaining tumour vasculature, and inhibits the formation of new tumour vasculature, thereby inhibiting tumour growth.

Blinatumomab is a bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct that binds specifically to CD19 expressed on the surface of cells of B-lineage origin and CD3 expressed on the surface of T-cells. It activates endogenous T-cells by connecting CD3 in the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex with CD19 on benign and malignant B-cells. Blinatumomab mediates the formation of a cytolytic synapse between the T-cell and the tumour cell, releasing proteolytic enzymes to kill both proliferating and resting target cells.

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) that delivers an antineoplastic agent that results in apoptotic cell death selectively in CD30-expressing tumour cells. Nonclinical data suggest that the biological activity of brentuximab vedotin results from a multi-step process. Binding of the ADC to CD30 on the cell surface initiates internalisation of the ADC-CD30 complex, which then traffics to the lysosomal compartment. Within the cell, a single defined active species, MMAE, is released via proteolytic cleavage. Binding of MMAE to tubulin disrupts the microtubule network within the cell, induces cell cycle arrest and results in apoptotic death of the CD30-expressing tumour cell.

Cemiplimab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody that binds to the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor and blocks its interaction with its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. Cemiplimab is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic or locally advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

Cetuximab is a chimeric monoclonal IgG1 antibody that is specifically directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR signalling pathways are involved in the control of cell survival, cell cycle progression, angiogenesis, cell migration and cellular invasion/metastasis. Cetuximab blocks binding of endogenous EGFR ligands resulting in inhibition of the function of the receptor.

Daratumumab is an IgG1κ human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to the CD38 protein expressed at a high level on the surface of multiple myeloma tumour cells, as well as other cell types and tissues at various levels. CD38 protein has multiple functions such as receptor mediated adhesion, signalling and enzymatic activity. Daratumumab has been shown to potently inhibit the in vivo growth of CD38-expressing tumour cells.

Durvalumab is a fully human, immunoglobulin G1 kappa (IgG1κ) monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 and CD80 (B7.1). Selective blockade of PD-L1/PD-1 and PD-L1/CD80 interactions enhances antitumour immune responses and increases T-cell activation.

Elotuzumab is an immunostimulatory humanised, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the SLAMF7 (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family member 7) protein. Elotuzumab directly activates natural killer cells through both the SLAMF7 pathway and Fc receptors enhancing anti-myeloma activity in vitro. Elotuzumab also targets SLAMF7 on myeloma cells and through interactions with Fc receptors on specific immune cells, promotes the killing of myeloma cells through NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and macrophage-mediated antibody-dependant cellular phagocytosis (ADCP).

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a monoclonal antibody that is directed against the antigen CD33, an adhesion protein found on the surface of myeloid leukaemic blasts and immature normal cells of myelomonocytic lineage. The anticancer effect of gemtuzumab ozogamycin is due to the commitment of ADC to cancer cells expressing CD33, with ultimate result the induction of DNA fragment and subsequent cell cycle interruption and finally the apoptotic cell death.

Inotuzumab ozogamicin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a recombinant humanised IgG4 kappa CD22-directed monoclonal antibody that is covalently linked to N-acetyl-gamma-calicheamicin dimethylhydrazide. The small molecule, N-acetyl-gamma-calicheamicin, is a cytotoxic product. N-acetyl-gamma-calicheamicin is covalently attached to the antibody via an acid-cleavable linker. Activation of N-acetyl-gamma-calicheamicin dimethylhydrazide induces double-stranded DNA breaks, subsequently inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death.

Ipilimumab is a CTLA-4 immune checkpoint inhibitor that blocks T-cell inhibitory signals induced by the CTLA-4 pathway, increasing the number of reactive T-effector cells which mobilize to mount a direct T-cell immune attack against tumour cells.

Mogamulizumab is a defucosylated, humanised IgG1 kappa immunoglobulin that selectively binds to CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor for CC chemokines that is involved in the trafficking of lymphocytes to various organs including the skin, resulting in depletion of the target cells.

Nivolumab is a human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), which binds to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2. Nivolumab potentiates T-cell responses, including anti-tumour responses, through blockade of PD-1 binding to PD-L1 and PD-L2 ligands. In syngeneic mouse models, blocking PD-1 activity resulted in decreased tumour growth.

Obinutuzumab is a recombinant monoclonal humanised and glycoengineered Type II anti-CD20 antibody of the IgG1 isotype. It specifically targets the extracellular loop of the CD20 transmembrane antigen on the surface of non-malignant and malignant pre-B and mature B-lymphocytes. Glycoengineering of the Fc part of obinutuzumab results in higher affinity for FcγRIII receptors on immune effector cells such as natural killer cells, macrophages and monocytes as compared to non-glycoengineered antibodies.

Ofatumumab is a human monoclonal antibody (IgG1) that binds specifically to a distinct epitope encompassing both the small and large extracellular loops of the CD20 molecule. The CD20 molecule is a transmembrane phosphoprotein expressed on B lymphocytes from the pre-B to mature B lymphocyte stage and on B-cell tumours. The binding of ofatumumab to the membrane-proximal epitope of the CD20 molecule induces recruitment and activation of the complement pathway at the cell surface, leading to complement dependent cytotoxicity and resultant lysis of tumour cells.

Olaratumab is an antagonist of platelet derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFR-α), expressed on tumour and stromal cells. Olaratumab is a targeted, recombinant, fully human immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody that specifically binds PDGFR-α, blocking PDGF AA, -BB, and CC binding and receptor activation. As a result, in vitro olaratumab inhibits PDGFRα pathway signalling in tumour and stromal cells. In addition, in vivo olaratumab has been shown to disrupt the PDGFR-α pathway in tumour cells and inhibit tumour growth.

Panitumumab is a recombinant, fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity and specificity to the human EGFR. Panitumumab binds to the ligand binding domain of EGFR and inhibits receptor autophosphorylation induced by all known EGFR ligands. Binding of panitumumab to EGFR results in internalisation of the receptor, inhibition of cell growth, induction of apoptosis, and decreased interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor production.

Pembrolizumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody which binds to the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor and blocks its interaction with ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. The PD-1 receptor is a negative regulator of T-cell activity that has been shown to be involved in the control of T-cell immune responses.

Pertuzumab is a recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the extracellular dimerization domain (subdomain II) of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 protein (HER2). Pertuzumab inhibits ligand-initiated intracellular signalling through two major signal pathways, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Inhibition of these signalling pathways can result in cell growth arrest and apoptosis, respectively.

Ramucirumab is a human receptor-targeted antibody that specifically binds VEGF Receptor 2 and blocks binding of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Receptor 2 is the key mediator of VEGF induced angiogenesis. As a result, ramucirumab inhibits ligand stimulated activation of VEGF Receptor 2 and its downstream signalling components, including p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinases, neutralising ligand-induced proliferation and migration of human endothelial cells.

Rituximab binds specifically to the transmembrane antigen, CD20, a non-glycosylated phosphoprotein, located on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. The antigen is expressed on >95% of all B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas.

Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanised IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Τrastuzumab has been shown, in both in vitro assays and in animals, to inhibit the proliferation of human tumour cells that overexpress HER2.

Trastuzumab emtansine is a HER2-targeted antibody-drug conjugate which contains the
humanised anti-HER2 IgG1, trastuzumab, covalently linked to the microtubule inhibitor DM1 (a maytansine derivative) via the stable thioether linker MCC (4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate). Emtansine refers to the MCC-DM1 complex. Conjugation of DM1 to trastuzumab confers selectivity of the cytotoxic agent for HER2-overexpressing tumour cells, thereby increasing intracellular delivery of DM1 directly to malignant cells. Upon binding to HER2, trastuzumab emtansine undergoes receptor-mediated internalization and subsequent lysosomal degradation, resulting in release of DM1-containing cytotoxic catabolites (primarily lysine-MCC-DM1).