Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Azacitidine is believed to exert its antineoplastic effects by multiple mechanisms including cytotoxicity on abnormal haematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and hypomethylation of DNA.
Capecitabine is a non-cytotoxic fluoropyrimidine carbamate, which functions as an orally administered precursor of the cytotoxic moiety 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). There is evidence that the metabolism of 5-FU in the anabolic pathway blocks the methylation reaction of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid, thereby interfering with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The incorporation of 5-FU also leads to inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis.
Cladribine is a nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine. In resting cells cladribine causes DNA single-strand breaks, rapid nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumption, ATP depletion and cell death.
Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside anti-metabolite. Its antitumour activity is believed to be due to 3 mechanisms. Clofarabine produces DNA polymerase inhibition resulting in termination of DNA chain elongation and/or DNA synthesis/repair and ribonucleotide reductase inhibition with reduction of cellular deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) pools. Clofarabine also produces disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity with the release of cytochrome C and other proapoptotic factors leading to programmed cell death even in non-dividing lymphocytes.
Cytarabine (ARA-C) is metabolised in vivo to ARA-CTP phosphorylated compound. This competitively inhibits DNA polymerase and may also inhibit certain acid kinase enzymes.
Decitabine is a cytidine deoxynucleoside analogue that selectively inhibits DNA methyltransferases at low doses, resulting in gene promoter hypomethylation that can result in reactivation of tumour suppressor genes, induction of cellular differentiation or cellular senescence followed by programmed cell death.
Fludarabine is a water-soluble fluorinated nucleotide analogue of the antiviral agent vidarabine 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) that is relatively resistant to deamination by adenosine deaminase. Fludarabine phosphate is rapidly dephosphorylated to 2F-ara-A which is taken up by cells and then phosphorylated intracellularly by deoxycytidine kinase to the active triphosphate, 2F-ara-ATP. This metabolite has been shown to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase, DNA polymerase α/δ and ε, DNA primase and DNA ligase thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis.
Fluorouracil is an analogue of uracil, a component of ribonucleic acid. The drug is believed to function as an antimetabolite.
Gemcitabine (dFdC), which is a pyrimidine antimetabolite, is metabolised intracellularly by nucleoside kinase to the active diphosphate (dFdCDP) and triphosphate (dFdCTP) nucleosides. The cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine is due to inhibition of DNA synthesis by two mechanisms of action by dFdCDP and dFdCTP.
Mercaptopurine is an inactive pro-drug which acts as a purine antagonist but requires cellular uptake and intracellular anabolism to thioguanine nucleotides for cytotoxicity. The mercaptopurine metabolites inhibit de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide interconversions. The thioguanine nucleotides are also incorporated into nucleic acids and this contributes to the cytotoxic effects of the active substance.
Methotrexate (4-amino-10-methylfolic acid) is a folic acid antagonist which inhibits the reduction of folic acid and increase of tissue cells. Methotrexate enters the cell through an active transport mechanism of reduced folates. As a result of polyglutamation of methotrexate caused by the folylpolyglutamylate enzyme, the duration of the cytotoxic effect of the drug substance in the cell increases.
Nelarabine is a pro-drug of the deoxyguanosine analogue ara-G. Accumulation of ara-GTP in leukaemic blasts allows for preferential incorporation of ara-GTP into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis. This results in cell death. Other mechanisms may contribute to the cytotoxic effects of nelarabine. In vitro, T-cells are more sensitive than B-cells to the cytotoxic effects of nelarabine.
Raltitrexed is a folate analogue belonging to the family of anti-metabolites and has potent inhibitory activity against the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS). Compared to other antimetabolites such as 5-fluorouracil or methotrexate, raltitrexed acts as a direct and specific TS inhibitor. TS is a key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of thymidine triphosphate (TTP), a nucleotide required exclusively for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Inhibition of TS leads to DNA fragmentation and cell death.
Tegafur is a prodrug of 5-FU with good oral bioavailability. Following oral administration, tegafur is gradually converted to 5-FU in vivo, mainly by CYP2A6 enzyme activity in the liver. 5-FU is metabolised by the liver enzyme DPD. 5-FU is activated within cells by phosphorylation to its active metabolite, 5-fluoro-deoxyuridine-monophosphate (FdUMP). FdUMP and reduced folate are bound to thymidylate synthase leading to formation of a ternary complex which inhibits DNA synthesis. In addition, 5-fluorouridine-triphosphate (FUTP) is incorporated into RNA causing disruption of RNA functions.
Tioguanine is a sulphydryl analogue of guanine and behaves as a purine antimetabolite. It is activated to its nucleotide, thioguanylic acid. Tioguanine metabolites inhibit de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide interconversions. Tioguanine is also incorporated into nucleic acids and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) incorporation is claimed to contribute to the agent’s cytotoxicity.