Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Colistimethate sodium (CMS) is a cyclic polypeptide antibacterial active substance that is derived from Bacillus polymyxa var colistinus and belongs to the polymyxin group. Polymyxins work by damaging the cell membrane and the resulting physiological effects are lethal to the bacterium. Polymyxins are selective for Gram-negative bacteria that have a hydrophobic outer membrane.
Colistin is a cyclic polypeptide antibacterial agent belonging to the polymyxin group. Polymyxins work by damaging the cell membrane and the resulting physiological effects are lethal to the bacterium. Polymyxins are selective for aerobic Gram-negative bacteria that have a hydrophobic outer membrane.
Dalbavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide. Its mechanism of action in susceptible Gram-positive bacteria involves interruption of cell wall synthesis by binding to the terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine of the stem peptide in nascent cell wall peptidoglycan, preventing cross-linking (transpeptidation and transglycosylation) of disaccharide subunits resulting in bacterial cell death.
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide natural product that is active against Gram positive bacteria only. The mechanism of action involves binding to bacterial membranes of both growing and stationary phase cells causing depolarisation and leading to a rapid inhibition of protein, DNA, and RNA synthesis.
Fosfomycin exerts a bactericidal effect on proliferating pathogens by preventing the enzymatic synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Fosfomycin inhibits the first stage of intracellular bacterial cell wall synthesis by blocking peptidoglycan synthesis.
Fusidic acid belongs to a unique group of antibiotics, the fusidanes, which act to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by blocking the lengthening of factor G. Fusidic acid is active against staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin resistant staphylococci.
Linezolid is a synthetic, antibacterial agent that belongs to a new class of antimicrobials, the oxazolidinones. It has in vitro activity against aerobic Gram positive bacteria and anaerobic micro-organisms. Linezolid selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis via a unique mechanism of action.
Methenamine is a urinary antibacterial agent with a wide antibacterial spectrum covering both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Urinary antibacterial activity can be shown within 30 minutes of administration.
Metronidazole is an anti-infectious drug belonging to the pharmacotherapeutic group of nitroimidazole derivatives, which have effect mainly on strict anaerobes. This effect is probably caused by interaction with DNS and different metabolites.
Nitrofurantoin is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent, active against the majority of urinary pathogens. It is bactericidal in renal tissue and throughout the urinary tract. The wide range of organisms sensitive to the bacterial activity include Escherichia coli, Enteroccus faecalis, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Staphylococcus species: (e.g. S. aureus, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermidis).
Ornidazole is indicated for the treatment of Bacterial vaginosis. It is effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (Giardia intestinalis), and also against certain anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides and Clostridium spp., Fusobacterium spp., and anaerobic cocci.
Polymixin B is bactericidal against a wide range of gram negative bacilli. It exerts a bactericidal effect by binding to acid phospholipids in the cell wall and membranes of the bacterium, thereby rendering ineffective the osmotic barrier normally provided by the cell membrane.
Teicoplanin inhibits the growth of susceptible organisms by interfering with cell-wall biosynthesis at a site different from that affected by beta-lactams. Peptidoglycan synthesis is blocked by specific binding to D-alanyl-D-alanine residues.
Tinidazole is active against both protozoa and obligate anaerobic bacteria. The activity against protozoa involves Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. The mode of action of tinidazole against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa involves penetration of the drug into the cell of the micro-organism and subsequent damage of DNA strands or inhibition of their synthesis.
Vancomycin is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits the synthesis of the cell wall in sensitive bacteria by binding with high affinity to the D-alanyl-D-alanine terminus of cell wall precursor units.