Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Acyclovir is an antiviral agent with activity against herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus. Acyclovir inhibits the DNA polymerase of the virus, preventing further proliferation.
The exact mechanism of the antiviral activity of docosanol is unknown. In vitro studies indicate that docosanol affects the fusion between the virus and the plasma membrane, which inhibits intracellular uptake and replication of virus. Docosanol has no effect against non-enveloped viruses.
Imiquimod is an immune response modifier. Saturable binding studies suggest a membrane receptor for imiquimod exists on responding immune cells. Imiquimod has no direct antiviral activity.
Lysozyme is a naturally occurring enzyme found in bodily secretions such as tears, saliva, and milk. It functions as an antimicrobial agent by cleaving the peptidoglycan component of bacterial cell walls, which leads to cell death.
Penciclovir has demonstrated in vivo and in vitro activity against herpes simplex viruses (types 1 and 2) and varicella zoster virus. Penciclovir triphosphate persists in infected cells for more than 12 hours where it inhibits replication of viral DNA and has a half-life of 9, 10 and 20 hours in cells infected with varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 respectively.
Podophyllotoxin is a metaphase inhibitor in dividing cells binding to at least one binding site on tubulin. Binding prevents tubulin polymerisation required for microtubule assembly. At higher concentrations, podophyllotoxin also inhibits nucleoside transport through the cell membrane.
Tromantadine is an antiviral medicine used to treat herpes simplex virus.