Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Atenolol is a beta-blocker which is beta1-selective, (i.e. acts preferentially on beta1-adrenergic receptors in the heart). Atenolol is without intrinsic sympathomimetic and membrane-stabilising activities and as with other beta-blockers, has negative inotropic effects.
Betaxolol is a cardioselective Beta1 receptor blocker which, when applied topically to the eye, lowers intraocular pressure. It is thought to produce this effect by reducing the rate of production of aqueous humour.
Bisoprolol is a potent highly beta1-selective-adrenoceptor blocking agent, lacking intrinsic stimulating and without relevant membrane stabilising activity.
Celiprolol is a vasoactive beta-l selective adrenoceptor antagonist with partial beta-2 agonist activity indicated in mild to moderate hypertension. The beta-2 agonist activity is thought to account for its mild vasodilating properties. It lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients at rest and on exercise.
Esmolol is a beta-selective (cardioselective) receptor blocking agent. At therapeutic doses esmolol has no significant intrinsic sympathicomimetic activity (ISA) or membrane stabilising activity.
Metoprolol is a cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent. It has a relatively greater blocking effect on beta1-receptors (ie those mediating adrenergic stimulation of heart rate and contractility and release of free fatty acids from fat stores) than on beta2-receptors, which are chiefly involved in broncho and vasodilation.
Nebivolol is a racemate of two enantiomers, SRRR-nebivolol (or d-nebivolol) and RSSS-nebivolol (or l-nebivolol). It is a competitive and selective beta-receptor antagonist and it has mild vasodilating properties due to an interaction with the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.