Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Agalsidase alfa catalyses the hydrolysis of Gb3, cleaving a terminal galactose residue from the molecule. Treatment with the enzyme has been shown to reduce accumulation of Gb3 in many cell types including endothelial and parenchymal cells. Agalsidase alfa has been produced in a human cell line to provide for a human glycosylation profile that can influence uptake by mannose-6-phosphate receptors on the surface of target cells.
Agalsidase beta is a recombinant form of human α-galactosidase A and is produced by recombinant DNA technology using a mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture. The amino acid sequence of the recombinant form, as well as the nucleotide sequence which encoded it, are identical to the natural form of α-galactosidase.
Alglucerase was a biopharmaceutical drug for the treatment of Gaucher’s disease. It was a modified form of human β-glucocerebrosidase enzyme, where the non-reducing ends of the oligosaccharide chains have been terminated with mannose residues.
Alglucosidase alfa is an enzyme replacement therapy orphan drug for treatment of Pompe disease (Glycogen storage disease type II), a rare lysosomal storage disorder (LSD). It is postulated that alglucosidase alfa will restore lysosomal GAA activity resulting in stabilisation or restoration of cardiac and skeletal muscle function (including respiratory muscles). Due to the bloodbrain barrier effect and the enzyme’s size, uptake of alglucosidase alfa in the central nervous system is unlikely.
Asfotase alfa, a human recombinant tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase-Fc-deca-aspartate fusion protein with enzymatic activity, promotes mineralisation of the skeleton in patients with hypophosphatasia.
Cerliponase alfa is a recombinant form of human tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (rhTPP1). Cerliponase alfa is a proteolytic inactive proenzyme (zymogen) that is activated in the lysosome. The glycosylation profile of cerliponase alfa results in consistent cellular uptake and lysosomal targeting for activation.
Purified galsulfase, a recombinant form of human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase, is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 56 kD. Galsulfase is indicated for long-term enzyme replacement therapy in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI; N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase deficiency; Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome).
Idursulfase (idursulfase) is a purified form of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase, produced in a human cell line providing a human glycosylation profile, which is analogous to the naturally occurring enzyme. Elaprase is indicated for the long-term treatment of patients with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis II, MPS II).
Imiglucerase is a recombinant macrophage targeted acid β-glucosidase that replaces the deficient enzyme activity, hydrolysing glucosylceramide, thus correcting initial pathophysiology and preventing secondary pathology. Imiglucerase has been shown to improve both mental and physical aspects in the quality of life of Gaucher disease.
Laronidase is a recombinant form of human α-L-iduronidase and is produced by recombinant DNA technology. Laronidase is indicated for long-term enzyme replacement therapy in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I; α-L-iduronidase deficiency) to treat the non-neurological manifestations of the disease.
Sebelipase alfa is a recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase (rhLAL). Replacement of LAL enzyme activity leads to reductions in liver fat content and transaminases, and enables metabolism of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in the lysosome, leading to reductions in lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and increases in HDL cholesterol. Improvement in growth occurs as a result of substrate reduction in the intestine.
Velaglucerase alfa supplements or replaces beta-glucocerebrosidase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucocerebroside to glucose and ceramide in the lysosome, reducing the amount of accumulated glucocerebroside and correcting the pathophysiology of Gaucher disease. Velaglucerase alfa increases haemoglobin concentration and platelet counts and reduces liver and spleen volumes in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease.
Velmanase alfa is a recombinant form of human alpha-mannosidase. Velmanase alfa is intended to supplement or replace natural alpha-mannosidase, an enzyme that catalyses the sequential degradation of hybrid and complex high-mannose oligosaccharides in the lysosome, reducing the amount of accumulated mannose-rich oligosaccharides.
Vestronidase alfa is a recombinant form of human betaglucuronidase (GUS) and is intended to provide exogenous GUS enzyme for uptake into cellular lysosomes and subsequent catabolism of accumulated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in affected tissues.