Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Betaine is a methyl derivative of glycine first isolated from the juice of sugar beets. Betaine participates in the methionine cycle, which produces vital biomolecules including proteins, hormones, phospholipids, polyamines, and nutrients. Betaine is used as a dietary supplement and has a beneficial effect on the human health. The drug acts as a methyl group donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine.
Carglumic acid is a carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS 1) allosteric modulator. CPS1 is found in the mitochondria and is the first enzyme of the urea cycle, which converts ammonia into urea. Carglumic acid acts as a replacement for N-acetylglutamate (NAG) in N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency patients by activating CPS1 but it does not help to regulate the urea cycle. Carglumic acid indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of acute hyperammonemia due to the deficiency of the hepatic enzyme NAGS.
Levocarnitine as a factor is necessary in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria-facilitating the oxidation of fatty acids rather than their incorporation into triglycerides.
Mercaptamine reduces corneal cystine crystal accumulation acting as a cystine-depleting agent by converting cystine to cysteine and cysteine-cysteamine mixed disulfides.
Metreleptin mimics the physiological effects of leptin by binding to and activating the human leptin receptor, which belongs to the Class I cytokine family of receptors that signals through the JAK/STAT transduction pathway.