Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Magnesium is a cofactor in >300 enzymatic reactions. It acts as an essential co-factor for all ATP-binding enzymes. Magnesium plays an important role in cellular electrolyte homeostasis and in the neuromuscular membrane stabilization.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is an empirical formula of MgO and consists of a lattice of Mg2+ ions and O2− ions held together by ionic bonding.
A cyclized derivative of L-glutamic acid. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of glutamine or glutathione metabolism.
Magnesium sulfate is a saline purgative. It can be employed locally in various inflammatory conditions, due to its osmotic action.
Manganese is required for the synthesis of the mucopolysaccharides of cartilage, glucose utilisation, steroid biosynthesis and for the activity of pyruvate carboxylase. It is bound to arginase of the liver and activates many enzymes.
Sodium chloride is the principle salt involved in maintaining the osmotic tension of blood and tissues. Changes in osmotic tension influence the movement of fluids and diffusion of salts in cellular tissue.
Sodium fluoride is indicated for the prevention of dental caries in adolescents and adults, particularly amongst patients at risk from multiple caries (coronal and/or root caries). The primary mode of the caries preventative action of fluoride is post-eruptive, i.e topical action. Systemic fluoride supplements are believed also to act mainly topically (i.e during ingestion, via saliva).
Selenium is an essential trace element. In human, selenium compounds are glutathione peroxidase and a selenium protein P found in the plasma. Deficiency of selenium has been associated with an endemic form of cardiomyopathy, Keshan disease and with Kaschin-Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthropathy which causes a severe deformity of the joints.
Zinc blocks the intestinal absorption of copper from the diet and the reabsorption of endogenously secreted copper. Zinc induces the production of metallothionein in the enterocyte, a protein that binds copper thereby preventing its transfer into the blood. The bound copper is then eliminated in the stool following desquamation of the intestinal cells.
Zinc sulfate is a source of zinc which is an essential trace element and involved in a number of body enzyme systems. Severe deficiency causes skin lesion, alopecia, diarrhoea, increased susceptibility to infections and failure to thrive in children.