Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Alogliptin is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of DPP-4, >10,000-fold more selective for DPP-4 than other related enzymes including DPP-8 and DPP-9. Alogliptin improves glycaemic control via a glucose-dependent mechanism, whereby insulin release is enhanced and glucagon levels are suppressed when glucose levels are high.
Linagliptin is an inhibitor of the enzyme DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase 4, EC 184.108.40.206) an enzyme which is involved in the inactivation of the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP (glucagon-like peptide1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide). These hormones are rapidly degraded by the enzyme DPP-4. Both incretin hormones are involved in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Saxagliptin is a highly potent (Ki: 1.3 nM), selective, reversible, competitive, DPP4 inhibitor. Saxagliptin improves glycaemic control by reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Sitagliptin is a member of a class of oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents called dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. The improvement in glycaemic control observed with this medicinal product may be mediated by enhancing the levels of active incretin hormones.
Vildagliptin enhances the sensitivity of beta cells to glucose, resulting in improved glucose-dependent insulin secretion by increasing the endogenous levels of these incretin hormones. The administration of vildagliptin results in a rapid and complete inhibition of DPP-4 activity, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial endogenous levels of the incretin hormones GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide).