Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Pioglitazone effects may be mediated by a reduction of insulin resistance. Pioglitazone appears to act via activation of specific nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma) leading to increased insulin sensitivity of liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells in animals. Treatment with pioglitazone has been shown to reduce hepatic glucose output and to increase peripheral glucose disposal in the case of insulin resistance.
Fasting and postprandial glycaemic control is improved in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The improved glycaemic control is associated with a reduction in both fasting and postprandial plasma insulin concentrations.
Rosiglitazone is a selective agonist at the PPARγ (peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor gamma) nuclear receptor and is a member of the thiazolidinedione class of anti-diabetic agents. It reduces glycaemia by reducing insulin resistance at adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver.