Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Amphotericin B is a macrocyclic, polyene antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus. The molecule is thought to act by binding to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, with a resulting change in membrane permeability, allowing leakage of a variety of small molecules.
Colistin is a cyclic polypeptide antibacterial agent belonging to the polymyxin group. Polymyxins work by damaging the cell membrane and the resulting physiological effects are lethal to the bacterium. Polymyxins are selective for aerobic Gram-negative bacteria that have a hydrophobic outer membrane.
Fidaxomicin is an antibiotic belonging to the macrocyclic class of antibacterials. Fidaxomicin is bactericidal and inhibits RNA synthesis by bacterial RNA polymerase. It interferes with RNA polymerase at a distinct site from that of rifamycins. Fidaxomicin is indicated for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) also known as C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in adult and paediatric patients.
Miconazole possesses an antifungal activity against the common dermatophytes and yeasts as well as an antibacterial activity against certain gram-positive bacilli and cocci. Its activity is based on the inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis in fungi and the change in the composition of the lipid components in the membrane, resulting in fungal cell necrosis.
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic and acts by binding to polysomes, inhibiting protein synthesis and generating errors in the transcription of the genetic code.
Nifuroxazide is a member of benzoic acids. Nifuroxazide is often used as an anti-diarrhoeal medicine.
Nystatin is an antifungal antibiotic active against a wide range of yeasts and yeast-like fungi, including Candida albicans.
Polymixin B is bactericidal against a wide range of gram negative bacilli. It exerts a bactericidal effect by binding to acid phospholipids in the cell wall and membranes of the bacterium, thereby rendering ineffective the osmotic barrier normally provided by the cell membrane.
Rifaximin is an antibacterial agent of the rifamycin class that inhibits bacterial RNA synthesis. Rifaximin has a broad antimicrobial spectrum against most of the Gram-positive and -negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria responsible for intestinal infections.
Streptomycin is a broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus with antibacterial activity. Streptomycin is typically used for treatment of active tuberculosis, always in combination with other antituberculosis agents.
Vancomycin is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits the synthesis of the cell wall in sensitive bacteria by binding with high affinity to the D-alanyl-D-alanine terminus of cell wall precursor units.