Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Acetylsalicylic acid combines significant advantages such as strong anti-pyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory action, that is the measure of comparison with all the newer NSAIDs.
Adrenalone is an adrenergic agonist that mainly acts on alpha-1 adrenergic receptors and has little affinity for beta receptors. Adrenalone was used as a topical vasoconstrictor and hemostatic and to prolong the action of local anesthetics.
Amphotericin B is a macrocyclic, polyene antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus. The molecule is thought to act by binding to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, with a resulting change in membrane permeability, allowing leakage of a variety of small molecules.
Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant.
Benzydamine exerts an anti-inflammatory and analgesic action by stabilising the cellular membrane and inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent, active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, yeasts, fungi, opportunistic anaerobes and aerobes. Chlorhexidine is mainly a “membrane-acting” agent that destroys the outer membrane of the bacteria. It is inactive on bacterial spores unless the temperatures are high.
Clotrimazole acts against fungi by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis leads to structural and functional impairment of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane. Clotrimazole has a broad antimycotic spectrum of action in vitro and in vivo, which includes dermatophytes, yeasts, moulds, etc.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid; it combines high anti-inflammatory effects with low mineralocorticoid activity. It has an approximately 7 times greater anti-inflammatory potency than prednisolone, another commonly prescribed corticosteroid. At high doses it reduces the immune response.
Doxycycline is primarily bacteriostatic and is believed to exert its antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Adrenaline is a direct acting sympathomimetic agent, which exerts effects on both α and β adrenoceptors. It has more pronounced effects on β than on α adrenoceptors, although α effects prevail at high doses. The effects of adrenaline include increased rate and force of cardiac contraction, cutaneous vasoconstriction and broncho-dilatation.
Hexetidine is a broad spectrum antimicrobial. It is active both in vivo and in vitro, against gram positive and negative bacterium, as well as yeasts (Candida albicans) and fungi.
Hydrocortisone is the main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Hydrocortisone is an anti-inflammatory steroid. Its anti-inflammatory action is due to reduction in the vascular component of the inflammatory response and reduction in the formation of inflammatory fluid and cellular exudates.
Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidising agent used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and deodorant. It has weak antibacterial activity and is also effective against viruses, including HIV. It also has a mild haemostatic action. It owes its antiseptic action to its ready release of oxygen when applied to tissues, but the effect lasts only as long as the oxygen is being released and is of short duration; in addition the antimicrobial effect of the liberated oxygen is reduced in the presence of organic matter. The mechanical effect of effervescence is probably more useful for wound cleansing than the antimicrobial action.
Metronidazole is an anti-infectious drug belonging to the pharmacotherapeutic group of nitroimidazole derivatives, which have effect mainly on strict anaerobes. This effect is probably caused by interaction with DNS and different metabolites.
Miconazole possesses an antifungal activity against the common dermatophytes and yeasts as well as an antibacterial activity against certain gram-positive bacilli and cocci. Its activity is based on the inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis in fungi and the change in the composition of the lipid components in the membrane, resulting in fungal cell necrosis.
Minocycline is a semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline. Minocycline inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria. In common with other tetracyclines it is primarily bacteriostatic and has a similar spectrum of activity to other tetracyclines.
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic and acts by binding to polysomes, inhibiting protein synthesis and generating errors in the transcription of the genetic code.
Tetracyclines are taken up into sensitive bacterial cells by an active transport process. Once within the cell they bind reversibly to the 30S subunit of the ribosome, preventing the binding of aminoacyl transfer RNA and inhibiting protein synthesis and hence cell growth.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a more potent derivative of triamcinolone and is approximately 8 times more potent than prednisone. Although the precise mechanism of corticosteroid anti-allergic action is unknown, corticosteroids are very effective in the treatment of allergic diseases in man. Also, local injections are thought to have an anti-inflammatory effect.